Merrigan et al. (2010) reported similar outcomes among MSM in three states in Nigeria 52. Another study that is recent Nigeria among MSM whom involved in transactional sex, indicated that MSM aged 25 years and above had been four times more prone to be HIV good compared to those aged 15–19 years 53. Nevertheless, our findings are contrary to those reported by Beyrer et al. (2012) and (2016) which indicated that more youthful MSM had greater burden of HIV 1, 54. A plausible description for the choosing is the fact that the older MSM have experienced extended experience of HIV through greater wide range of sexual lovers, participating in transactional intercourse and greater contact with anal sex that is unprotected. Additionally, MSM sampled this year and 2014 had been more prone to be HIV good in comparison to those in 2007 and also this further supports our argument that the exposure that is prolonged higher danger behaviours will be the reason for higher HIV prevalence among older MSM. Young MSM aged 16–19 years are going to nevertheless have parental help and hence, there’s less socioeconomic stress to take part in high-risk intimate methods such as for instance transactional intercourse. In addition, their intimate companies revolve around their peers instead of intergenerational sexual lovers and also this limits their experience of older HIV contaminated MSM.
There clearly was a significant escalation in the percentage of MSM whom reported making love with female partners between 2007 and 2014. This is really a possible connection between MSM while the basic populace and so merits conversation since the gains in reduced amount of HIV prevalence on the list of basic populace can be eroded by bisexual sexual intercourse among MSM. The rise in bisexuality may mirror the hostility that is increasing stigma and criminalization of MSM in https://bridesfinder.net/russian-bride/ Nigeria. Schwartz et al. (2015) examined the instant outcomes of the marriage that is same-sex work in Nigeria and reported a statistically significant boost in percentage of MSM that has feminine lovers following the legislation ended up being passed away compared to the pre-law period 13. This coping process towards the high stigma and criminalization of MSM might also adversely influence their usage of key populace friendly clinics while they continue steadily to conceal their identification also to medical care employees.
This research has many limits. The lack of a potential research team as well as the utilization of cross-sectional studies from unmatched cohort limitations the energy of our research and so calls for care into the interpretation associated with the data. There might be dependence that is potential information from various rounds of IBBSS that may overestimate HIV prevalence if an important wide range of positives from previous rounds had been recruited into subsequent rounds or an underestimation of HIV prevalence is a substantial wide range of HIV negative MSM were targeted and recruited in subsequent rounds. Future studies ought to include a adjustable to greatly help recognize those in past rounds and their HIV status at that round allowing a far more robust estimation of HIV among MSM. Data on HIV prevention programs and treatment protection into the research states had not been available and so could never be taken into account within our research to measure the impacts independently of those programs when you look at the research result. In addition, information on therapy protection may help give an explanation for noticed enhance if therapy coverage ended up being evaluated become low. Another limitation is the fact that of social desirability bias on intimate danger behaviours as information had been self-reported, though the greater rise in constant condom use during transactional intercourse when compared with non-transactional is related to that seen among female intercourse employees 54 and shows that risks behaviors captured within these scholarly studies was under-reported because of the increase of STIs and HIV observed. Moreover, studies on biological validation of non-safe sex among female intercourse workers show over-reporting that is significant of sex 55 and future studies must look into biological validation of protected intercourse among MSM to raised characterize risk behaviours Drug use especially usage of methamphetamine 1 happens to be connected with HIV among MSM, nevertheless, there clearly was no information on medication usage among MSM in every three rounds for the study. Further research is needed to figure out the relationship of medication use and HIV among MSM in Nigeria. Finally, not absolutely all consumers decided on an HIV make sure the percentage of refusal ranged from 10 to 16percent. Even though the status of the whom rejected an HIV test may not be thought, individuals whom declined to decide for an HIV test could have done this due to past knowledge of HIV infection and thus prevalence of HIV was underestimated when you look at the present research and later biases the noticed trend in HIV prevalence.
In conclusion, this the study that is first measure the trend of HIV prevalence among MSM in Nigeria and then we report lots of key observations. Like in other climes, HIV prevalence among MSM in Nigeria is for a progression that is alarming a general enhance of 10% point each year over 7 years. No state is spared, and avoidance packages needs to be holistic and include the utilization of methods with all the evidence that is strongest of greatest effectiveness in preventing HIV transmission; very early treatment of partners, 2, 56 condoms 32, 57 and oral preexposure prophylaxis 58. Finally, the HIV epidemic among MSM in Nigeria is serious and plainly, is just one of the defining challenges ahead, and possibly the absolute most gap that is critical the nationwide HIV avoidance system to regulate the HIV epidemic in Nigeria.
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