But if lots of people want better mass transit and are willing to pay for it, this is a great money-making Kansas nebraska act apush essay Entrepreneurs are pretty smart, so they would notice this money-making opportunity, raise some funds from equally-observant venture capitalists, make a better mass transit system, and get really rich off of all the tickets.
But nobody has done this. No doctor had any good ideas about what to do at this point. Eliezer did some digging, found that existing light boxes were still way less bright than the sun, and jury-rigged a Drug discovery phd thesis brighter version.
A friend told Eliezer that the professionals at the Bank surely knew more than he did. But after a few years, the Bank of Japan switched policies, the Japanese economy instantly improved, and now the email vs letter compare and contrast essay position is that the original policies were deeply flawed in exactly the way Eliezer and others thought they were.
You would expect it to just not work at all. In previous years, I would use the case of central-line infections as my go-to example of medical structure of literature review Some babies have malformed digestive systems and need to have nutrient fluid pumped directly into their veins. The nutrient fluid formula used in the US has the wrong kinds of lipids in it, and about a email vs letter compare and contrast essay of babies who get it die of brain or liver damage.
But the only FDA-approved nutrient fluid formula is the one with the wrong lipids, so we just keep giving it to babies, and they just keep dying. Eliezer draws on the economics literature to propose three main categories of solution: I shall, somewhat arbitrarily, sort these concepts into three larger categories: Cases where the decision lies in the hands of people who would gain little personally, or lose out personally, if they did what was necessary to help someone else; 2.
Systems that are broken in multiple places so that no one actor can make them better, even though, in principle, some magically coordinated action could move to a new stable state.
4 Writing Structured Programs
The first way evil enters the world is when there is no way for people who notice a mistake to benefit from correcting it.
For example, Eliezer and his friends sometimes joke about how really stupid Uber-for-puppies style startups are overvalued. The people investing in these startups are making a mistake big enough for ordinary people like Eliezer to notice.
All you need is one stupid investor who thinks Uber-for-puppies is going to be the next big thing, and the startup will get overfunded.
The same is true, more tragically, for housing prices. This is why there are so many housing bubbles, and why ordinary people without PhDs in finance can notice housing bubbles and yet those bubbles remain uncorrected. A more complicated version: Most of the smart people with skin in the game had come to the email vs letter compare and contrast essay realization Eliezer had.
But central bankers are mostly interested in prestige, and for various reasons low money supply the wrong policy in this case is generally considered a virtuous and reasonable thing for a central banker to do, while high money supply the right policy in this case is generally considered a sort of irresponsible thing to do that makes all the other central bankers laugh at you.
Their payoff matrix with totally made-up utility points looked sort of like this: You rub dissertation datenbank a bold gamble and it paid off, nice job. You did a stupid thing everyone always says not to do, you predictably failed and destroyed our economy, fuck you So even as evidence accumulated that high money supply was the right strategy, the Japanese central bankers looked at their payoff matrix and decided to keep a low money supply.
This is dumb but inevitable. The stock market stays efficient because expertise brings power. When Warren Buffett proves really good at stock-picking, everyone rushes to give him gr-forum.org money. If an ordinary person demonstrated Buffett-like levels of acumen, every hedge fund in the country would be competing to hire him and throw billions of dollars at whatever he predicted would work.
But imagine that Congress makes a new law that nobody can invest more than a thousand dollars. One possibility is that investment gurus could spring up, people just as smart as the Goldman Sachs traders, who for a nominal fee will tell you which stocks are underpriced. But this is hard, and fraudulent experts can claim to be email vs letter compare and contrast essay gurus just as easily as real ones. Something like this seems to be going on in medicine.
Sure, the five doctors who really understand infant nutrition can raise a big fuss about how our terrible nutritional fluid is killing thousands of email vs letters compare and contrast essay. Everyone is raising a big fuss about something or other.
We have an economic phenomenon sometimes called the lemons problem. Asymmetric information conditions can persist describe your best friend personality essay in cases where, like an honest seller meeting an honest buyer, both parties have strong incentives for accurate information to be conveyed.
So the honest sellers with reliable cars start to leave the market, which further shifts upward the probability that any given car for sale is a lemon, which makes me less willing to pay for a used car, which incentivizes more honest sellers to leave the market, and so on. The beneficiaries of getting the infant-nutritional-fluid problem right are parents whose kids have a rare digestive condition.
Maybe there are ten thousand of them. That leaves a hundred people. As for everyone else, why would they email vs letter compare and contrast essay about nutritional fluid rather than terrorism or mass shootings or whatever all the other much-more-fun-to-worry-about things are? We next sat essay score 16 that in some academic field, there exists a population of researchers who are individually eager and collectively opportunistic for publications—papers accepted to journals, especially high-impact journal publications that constitute strong progress toward tenure.
For any clearly visible opportunity to get a sufficiently large number of citations with a small enough amount of work, there are collectively enough academics in this field that somebody will snap up the opportunity.
This level of opportunism might be much more than the average paper gets in citations per day of work. Maybe the average is more like 10 citations per year of work, and lots of researchers work for a year on a paper that ends up garnering only 3 citations. But academic paper-writers are only half the equation; the other half is a population of grantmakers. I might naively reply: Assume the most altruistically neglected project produces 1, QALYs per dollar. If we add a single rational and altruistic researcher to this model, then they will work on that project, whereupon the equilibrium will be adequate at 1, QALYs per email vs letter compare and contrast essay.
But this assumes the grantmakers Esl writing research paper eager to fund highly efficient QALY-increasing projects. Suppose that most grantmakers pursue, say, prestige per dollar. Robin Hanson offers an elementary argument that most grantmaking to academia is about prestige.
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Then at equilibrium, everything that provides at least 2 citations per workday and 20 microHawkings per dollar will get done. But even if the argument is still missing some pieces, you can see the general shape of this style of analysis. If a piece of research will clearly visibly yield lots of citations with a reasonable amount of labor, and make the grantmakers on the committee look good for not too much money committed, then a researcher eager to do it can probably find a grantmaker eager to fund it.
One systemic problem can often be overcome by one altruist in the right place. Two systemic problems are another matter entirely. The third way evil enters the world is through bad Nash email vs letters compare and contrast essay. It records all your private data, it screws with the order of your timeline, it works to be as addictive and time-wasting as possible.
We want to be where our friends are. None of us expect our friends to leave, so we all stay.
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Something like an assurance contract might help, but those are pretty hard to organize. And email vs letter compare and contrast essay a few people who genuinely like Facebook and are really loud about it could ruin that for everybody.
Suppose there was no such email vs letter compare and contrast essay as Lyft — it was Uber or take the bus. And suppose we got tired of this and wanted to invent Lyft. Could we do it at this late stage? So you, the entrepreneur trying to start Lyft in ADhire twenty drivers. So no passenger will ever switch to Lyft, and that means your twenty drivers will get bored and give up.
Few passengers will use your app when Uber has far more drivers, and few drivers will use your app when Uber has far more passengers.
October 31, by Mike Klimo | Star Wars RING THEORY: The Hidden Artistry of the Star Wars Prequels. How George Lucas used an ancient technique called “ring composition” to reach a level of storytelling sophistication in his six-part saga that is unprecedented in cinema history.
Both drivers and passengers might hate Uber, and be happy to switch en masse if the other group did, but from within the system nobody can coordinate this kind of mass-switch occuring.
Or, to take a ridiculous example from the text that will obviously never happen: The natural next thing that happens is Literature review on small business failure higher salaries, or even make entering the tower a condition of being employed at all.
This makes everyone want to go to the email vs letter compare and contrast essay, which enables somebody to set up a fence around the tower and charge hundreds of thousands of dollars to let people in. Now, fortunately, after Tower One is established and has been running for a while, somebody tries to set up a competing magical tower, cover letter for cdl a truck driver Two, that also drains four years of life but charges less money to enter.
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Initially, all of the smartest people headed to Tower One. Since Tower One had limited room, it started discriminating further among its entrants, only taking the ones that have IQs above the minimum, or who are good at athletics or have email vs letter compare and contrast essay parents or something.
So when Tower Two comes along, the employers still prefer employees from Tower One, trufitos.000webhostapp.com has a more famous reputation. So the smartest people still prefer to apply to Tower One, even though it costs more money. In other words, the signaling equilibrium is a two-factor market in which the stable email vs letter compare and contrast essay, Tower One, is cemented in place by the individually best choices of two different parts of the system.
Smart employees prefer Tower One because employers will proof reading as a job them more for going there.
If you try dissenting from the system unilaterally, without everyone switching at the same time, then as an employer you end up hiring the less-qualified people from Tower Two, or as an email vs letter compare and contrast essay, you end up with lower salary offers after you go to Tower Two.
So the system is stable as a matter of individual incentives, and stays in place. Everything above was the first book. The undisputed “bible” of programming, a 2, page multi-volume work by Donald Knuth, is called The Art of Computer Programming.
Many books have been written on Literate Programming, recognizing that humans, not just computers, must read and understand programs. Here we pick up on some issues of programming style that have important ramifications for the readability of your code, including code layout, procedural vs declarative style, and the use of loop variables.
Python Coding Style When writing programs you make many subtle choices about names, spacing, comments, and so on. When you look at code written by other people, needless differences in style make it harder to interpret the code.
- This contrast with the minimal amount of guilt that Lady Macbeth experiences:
- A basis for comparison may have to do with a theme, characteristics, or details about two different things.
- Complete with an underground lake of lava, I believe.
- The International Online-Only Journal, vol.
- It records all your private data, it screws with the order of your timeline, it works to be as addictive and time-wasting as possible.
- An individual webpage should be in quotation marks.
- It is up to the Empresses of the world to defend their own cultures.
Therefore, the designers of the Python language have published a style guide for Python code, available at http: The underlying value presented in the style guide is consistency, for the purpose of maximizing the Critical essay thesis generator review some of its key recommendations here, and refer readers to the full guide for detailed discussion with examples.
Code layout should use four spaces per indentation level. You should make sure that when you write Python code in a file, you avoid tabs for indentation, since these can be misinterpreted by different text editors and the indentation can be messed up. Lines should be less than 80 characters long; if necessary you can break a line inside parentheses, brackets, or braces, because Python is able to detect that the line continues over to the next line. If you need to break a line outside parentheses, brackets, or braces, you can often add extra parentheses, and you can always add a backslash at the end of the line that is broken: Many programming editors have built-in support for Python, and can automatically indent code and highlight any syntax errors including indentation errors.
For a list of Python-aware editors, please see http: Procedural vs Declarative Style We have email vs letter compare and contrast essay seen how the same task can be performed in different ways, with implications for efficiency. Another factor influencing program development is programming style.
Consider the following program to compute the average length of words in the Brown Corpus: This is a low-level style, not far removed from machine code, the primitive operations performed by the computer’s CPU. The two variables are just like a CPU’s registers, accumulating values at many intermediate stages, values that are meaningless until the end.
We say that this email vs letter compare and contrast essay is written in a procedural style, dictating the email vs letter compare and contrast essay operations step by step. Now consider the following program that computes the same thing: The first line uses a generator expression to sum the token lengths, while the second line computes the average as before.
Each line of code performs a complete, meaningful task, which can be understood in terms of high-level properties like: accounting master thesis 2016 details are left to the Python interpreter. The second program uses a built-in function, and constitutes programming at a more abstract level; the resulting code is more declarative.
Let’s look at an extreme example: The equivalent declarative version uses familiar built-in functions, and its purpose is instantly recognizable: